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Jumat, 19 Oktober 2012

Career-Development Th.: Overview


Overview of Career-Development Theories

Career Development Theories for the past 75 years fall into four categories:
  1. Trait Factor - Matching personal traits to occupations-Frank Parson’s (1920’s)
  2. Psychological - Personality types matching work environment- Holland (1980’s)
  3. Decision - Situational or Sociological- Bandura ( Self Efficacy-1970’s)
  4. Developmental - Self Concept over life span-Super (1950’s)

Holland Theory of Vocational Types


This approach gives explicit attention to behavioral style or personality types as the major influence in career choice development. This is described as structurally interactive.
Common Themes:
  • Occupation choice is an expression of personality and not random
  • Members of an occupational group have similar personalities
  • People in each group will respond to situations an problems similarly
  • Occupational achievement, stability and satisfaction depends on congruence between one’s personality and job environment

6 Holland Types

 Realistic - work with hands, machines, tools, active, practical, adventurous

High traits - practical, masculine, stable
Low traits - sensitive, feminine, stable
Occupations - construction, farming, architecture, truck driving, mail carrier

Investigative thought, analytical approaches, explore, knowledge, ideas, not social

      High traits – scholarly, intellectual, critical
      Low traits – powerful, ambitious, adventurous
      Occupations – biologist, chemist, dentist, veterinarian, programmer

      Artistic – literary, musical, artistic activities, emotional, creative, open
      High traits – expressive, creative, spontaneous
      Low traits – orderly, efficient, conventional, social, masculine
      Occupations – artist, musician, poet, interior designer, writer

Social – train, inform, educate, help, supportive, avoid technical skills, empathy, relationships
      High traits – cooperative, friendly, humanistic
      Low traits – ambitious, creative,   strong,
      Occupations – social work, counseling, police officer, LPN

       Enterprising – verbally skilled, persuasive, direct, leader, dominant
       High traits – ambitious, adventurous, energetic
       Low traits – intellectual, creative, feminine
       Occupations – lawyer, business executive, politician, TV producer

Conventional – rules and routines, provide order or direct structure, great self control, respect power and status, punctual, orderly
High traits – stable, efficient, dependable, controlled
Low traits – intellectual, adventurous, creative
Occupations – bank teller, clerk typist, cashier, data entry

Terms:

Differentiation - the amount of spread between one’s first and second code letters; denotes how clear one’s type is.
Incongruence – lack of fit between one’s type and work environment. People leave jobs because of too much incongruence or because of a chance to increase their congruence. Best decision makers are I’s; worst are C’s.

Consistency – closeness on the hexagon of one’s first and second choices. The higher one’s consistency, the more integrated one’s characteristics (values, interests, traits) and the greater one’s vocational maturity, persistence and achievement.


Over 450 research studies, Holland Types appear to be stable over time and across gender and racial lines.

Advantages of Holland Types for Career Counseling
Types are intuitively appealing and easily shared with students. Helps students get oriented to the worlds of work that isn’t overwhelming. Provides helpful way of understanding varied work environments.

Disadvantages of Holland Types for School Counseling
Theory doesn’t provide insights into how one develops a type or guidance for working with student.


Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory

The concept of self efficacy is the focal point of Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory. By means of the self system, individuals exercise control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions. Among the beliefs with which an individual evaluates the control over his/her actions and environment, self-efficacy beliefs are the most influential predictor of human behavior. The level and strength of self-efficacy will determine:
·         whether coping behavior will be initiated;
·         how much effort will result;
·         how long the effort will be sustained in the face of obstacles.

Self-Efficacy - the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments- is constructed on the basis of:

Four most influential sources where self-efficacy is derived:
·         Personal Performance - Accomplishments-previous successes or failures (most influential)
·         Vicarious Experience - Watching others, modeling, mentoring
·         Verbal Persuasion - Verbal encouragement or discouragement
·         Physiological and Emotional Factors - Perceptions of stress reactions in the body

Self-Efficacy plays the central role in the cognitive regulation of motivation, because people regulate the level and distribution of effort they will expend in accordance with the effects they are expecting from their actions.

It is important to understand the distinction between Self Esteem and Self Efficacy.
·         Self esteem relates to a person’s sense of self worth.
·         Self efficacy relates to a person’s perception of their ability to reach a goal.


How Self Efficacy Affects Human Function

Choices regarding behavior-People will be more inclined to take on a task if they believe they can succeed. People generally avoid tasks where their self efficacy is low, but engage when it is high. Self efficacy significantly higher than ability can lead to psychological damage. Significantly low self efficacy leads to an inability to grow and expand skills. Optimum levels of self efficacy are a little above ability, which encourages people to tackle challenging tasks and gain valuable experience.

Motivation- People with higher self efficacy in a task are likely to expend more effort and persist longer than with low efficacy. On the other hand, low self efficacy may provide an incentive to learn more and prepare better than a person with higher self efficacy.

Thought Patterns and Responses- Low self efficacy can lead people to believe tasks are harder than they actually are. This leads to poor planning and stress. A person with higher self efficacy will attribute a failure to external factors, whereas a person with lower self efficacy will attribute it to low ability. (Example: Math Test)

The Destiny Idea- Bandura successfully showed that people with differing self-efficacy perceive the world in fundamentally different ways. People with a high self efficacy are generally of the opinion that they are in control of their own lives: that their own actions and decisions shape their lives. On the other hand, people with low self-efficacy may see their lives as somewhat out of their hands and with fate.


Efficacy vs. Outcome Expectations

Bandura distinguishes between outcome expectancy and and efficacy expectancy.

Outcome expectation refers to the person’s estimate that a given behavior will lead to particular outcomes.

Efficacy expectation is an estimate that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes sought.

Self-beliefs about abilities play a central role in the career decision-making process. People move toward those occupations requiring capabilities they think they either have or can develop. People move away from those occupations requiring capabilities they think they do not possess or they cannot develop.


Personal goals also influence career behaviors in important ways. Personal goals relate to one’s determination to engage in certain activities to produce a particular outcome. Goals help to organize and guide behavior over long periods of time.

The relationship among goals, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations is complex and occurs within the framework of:

Bandura’s Triadic Reciprocal Model of Causality – these factors are all affecting each other simultaneously
  • personal attributes,
  • external environmental factors
  • overt behavior

In essence, a person inputs (e.g. gender, race) interact with contextual factors (e.g. culture, family geography) and learning experiences to influence self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations.

Self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations in turn shape people’s interests, goals, actions, and eventually their attainments.

However, these are also influenced by contextual factors (e.g. job opportunities, access to training opportunities, financial resources).

In this theory providing opportunities, experiences and significant adults to impact self-efficacy in all children becomes vital. Strategic career development interventions will positively impact young people in the context of this theory.